How to choose a Turbo kit for the Suzuki Hayabusa.
Choosing a Turbo kit for your Suzuki GSX1300R Hayabusa can be a daunting task considering all the disinformation that is all over the Internet. Before we attempt to answer the question of how do you choose the right turbo kit for your Suzuki Hayabusa, we must first understand the terminology used in turbo kits. Once you understand how different turbo kits operate and what the advantages and benefits are of each kit are, then you can more proficiently choose the turbo kit that's right for you. Whether you are considering a Turbo Kit from: Ruthless Performance Motorsports, RCC Turbos, Velocity Racing Turbos, MC-Express, Big CC Racing, NLR, Hahn, Mr. Turbo or Muzzy; this information will help you choose the right turbo kit for your Suzuki Hayabusa.
I. Different Stages of Turbo kits for the Suzuki Hayabusa.
A. Stage I: these are entry-level turbo kits producing approximately between 230 hp and 275 hp, and which generally come with a plenum or intake, turbo header, turbo, internal or external wastegate (usually internal), exhaust, FMU and plumbing. These kits will just bolt on, with no need for internal modifications. The extra fuel required while under boost is handled by an FMU or what is called a rising rate fuel pressure regulator. Tuning of the fuel is usually handled by a DynoJet Power Commander or a similar type of EFI tuning computer. These turbo kits are limited on what boost they can run; because once they are tuned, you cannot change the boost PSI without ruining the tune, unless you have an EFI controller capable of storing more than one MAP, with the ability to switch between different maps at the push of a button or through the use of an RPM switch.
B. Stage II: these kits produced between 250 hp to 450 hp, depending on the manufacturer and configuration. The most important difference between the Stage I Turbo Kit and the States II Turbo Kit is secondary fueling, which allows you the ability to regulate boost with any type of boost controller. It is generally a good idea to consider internal modifications after the 300 hp mark is reached; there are many different opinions as to when these modifications should be done. I will leave this subject up to your engine builder and you.
C. Stage III: these kits produce anywhere from 350 hp to 550 hp, they are also referred to as Race Kits by many turbo manufacturers such as RCC Turbos. The main difference between this kit and the Stage II Kit usually is the size of the turbo; these kits usually employ the use of a GT35R or GT40R sized turbo. These kits usually always require internal modifications to keep them from blowing apart, considering the boost levels used and the horsepower created.
D. RCC Ultra, NLR, Big CC Racing, RPM:
these turbo kits are generally considered the best that money can buy and can
make anywhere from 252 hp to over 700 hp.
II. Inter-cooling Turbo kits for the Suzuki Hayabusa.
A. Air/Air Intercooler: air to air intercoolers are the most common form of intercooling and the most recognized. These are the intercoolers you generally see mounted in the front bumper of an Import Sports Car. These intercoolers work by forcing the compressed air into a heat exchanger which is mounted generally in front of the radiator, as air passes over the aluminum fins of the intercooler heat from discharged air is transferred to the air passing through the intercooler and thus lowers the temperature of the intake charge. At this time the only manufactured to produce an air to air intercooler is from MC-Express in Sweden, but can be purchased on our website or from companies such as RCC Turbos, NLR and Big CC Turbos.
B. Water/Air Intercooler: water to air intercoolers work much like an air to air intercooler, except the heat exchanger is filled with water and mounted within the intake, such as an RCC Ultra Plenum. The water is then circulated to another heat exchanger, which is usually a radiator from the same type of bike, which has been cut down to one third its size. As the water passes through the heat exchanger inside the intake, the water absorbs the heat and transfers it to the other heat exchanger, which in turn transfers the heat to the atmosphere. Water to air intercoolers are the most efficient form of intercooling, but they do consist of more parts and plumbing.
Injection: water/methanol injection or commonly known as water
injection is a form of intercooling which employs the use of a water tank,
water pump and injection nozzle to inject water into the charge side of the
intake tract, which in turn cools the combustion process. As water is injected
into the intake tract it absorbs heat, much in the same way their radiators
water would absorb heat, then once in the combustion chamber it is converted to
steam during the combustion process; thus absorbing more heat. Due to the
properties of water, a great amount of heat is absorbed when water is converted
from a liquid to a gas, this creates the intercooling affect. If you also
employ the use of methanol in your water injection system, you are injecting
high octane alcohol which further adds to the intercooling process and at the
same time increases octane. With water injection you may safely raise the boost
pressure without increasing fuel octane, more than you could increase it
without the use of water injection. Water injection can also be used in
conjunction with intercooling. Water injection is not as efficient as
intercooling, but can get you very similar effects for less money.
III. Fuel Management:
A. FMU or Rising Rate Fuel Pressure Regulator: an FMU, which is generally used only in Stage I Turbo Kits, raises the fuel disproportionately to the rise in boost pressure. Depending on how you adjust the unit, as boost pressure increases, the fuel pressure increases at an exponential rate. This increase in fuel allows the injectors to flow enough fuel to the combustion chamber during boost to maintain the proper air fuel mixture ratio.
B. 1:1 Fuel Pressure Regulator: these are also referred to as boost referencing fuel pressure regulators and are the most common form of fuel pressure regulator in the high performance industry. The way these fuel pressure regulators operate is by referencing boost pressure in the intake tract. The reason they are not usually connected under the throttle bodies is they will actually reduce fuel pressure when vacuum is applied to them and generally you want to keep your fuel pressure at 43 PSI if you are not under boost. The way these fuel pressure regulators operate is as one PSI of boost is seen in the intake tract your fuel pressure regulator will raise the fuel pressure by one PSI and will raise fuel pressure in a one-to-one ratio as boost pressure rises in the intake tract. The reason for this is to maintain proper air to fuel mixture ratios, because as boost pressure rises if you do not raise the fuel pressure on a one-to-one ratio eventually you will stop flowing fuel and the boost will actually push into your fuel system, if you're motor doesn't blow up first.
C. Power Commander or similar tuning computer: these are computers that attached to your factory fuel injection system and have the ability to tune your factory fuel injection settings based on RPM and throttle position, some of the newer models even have boost reference; which allows you to increase fuel based on boost pressure. These are generally used on Stage I Kits to keep costs down and work by manipulating the factory ECUs signals to either increase or decrease fuel at a certain point in the fuel map. Most can only handle one map at a time, although there are some models which allow you to switch between different maps and can be tuned to different boost pressures.
D. ECUs Re-Flashing: this is a new approach to tuning your Stage I Gen 1 (1999-2007) Hayabusa turbo kit. This essentially changes the factory parameters in the stock ECU for both fuel and ignition through the use of a computer. This does require the use of special equipment to connect your computer to your factory ECUs and the proper software for flashing the new maps into your factory EFI ECU. If you have a Gen 2 (2008+) Hayabusa you can use ECU flashing to actually control Stage I Turbo Kits as you would control the Stage II, except for the use of secondary injection and a secondary fueling computer, all changes are made within the factory ECU and are based on boost pressure from an aftermarket boost pressure sensor that must be installed.
E. Secondary Injection: Secondary Injection is when four additional fuel injectors are placed above the stock throttle bodies and an aftermarket ECU controls the operation of these injectors based on engine RPM and boost pressure. These are generally used in Stage I and Stage III Turbo Kits and are much more accurate than using an FMU. There has been some attempts to use a single fuel injector located in the intake tract, but this is only cause more problems than benefits, as there is no way to regulate the fuel being distributed to the different cylinders, leaving you with the problem of some cylinders being lean and others rich.
if you are looking for the best in fuel and ignition control, then a standalone
ECU is the choice you'd want to make. These replace the factory ECU and
controlling all operations of the motor, both fuel and ignition timing. There
are a variety of manufacturers of these units, such as; Motec, Haltech,
MicroTech and many more.
IV. Wastegate and Boost Control.
A. Internal: internal wastegate is generally only found on Stage I Turbo Kits, although some manufacturers do use them on Stage II Kits. Internal wastegate are built directly into the turbo itself and use a small flapper valve in the exhaust turbine housing which allows exhaust from the motor to bypass the turbine to control boost pressure. They generally only have one input which references boost pressure and boost is controlled by bleeding off the pressure to this input.
B. External: external wastegate use a wastegate that is separate from the turbo itself, in most automobiles they are placed in the header, but considering the tight space of a motorcycle application they generally come out of the exhaust turbine housing, before the turbine wheel. They function in much the same manner as an internal wastegate, meaning they bleed off exhaust gases and divert them away from the turbine to control boost. The main advantage of an external wastegate is the ability to more accurately regulate boost pressure. They are also a requirement for high horsepower kits, as an internal wastegate cannot bleed off enough pressure to accurately regulate a large turbo such as the GT40R.
C. Bleeder Style Boost Controler: this type of boost controler operates by bleeding off boost pressure from an internal wastegate or bleeding off boost pressure from the bottom port of an external wastegate. As boost is bled off from the wastegate, the internal spring of the wastegate can hold the wastegate closed longer, thus increasing boost pressure. These can also be purchased in a dual stage configurations or through the use of multiple solenoids a multistage boost controller can be fabricated.
D. Pressure Regulating Boost Controler: these work in the opposite manner of the bleeder style boost control, instead of bleeding off boost pressure, these apply boost pressure to the top of an external wastegate to increase the pressure to hold the wastegate closed, increasing boost pressure. These can be purchased in many different configurations and are generally considered the best form of manual boost control.
E. Electronic Boost Controler: there are many different varieties of electronic boost controllers available on the market, but at Ruthless Performance Motorsports we only think of one manufacturer to buy them from; Next Level Racing or NLR is the only way to go if you're considering a top-of-the-line electronic boost controller. The famed AMS-1000 has been the best boost controller available on the market for years and the only boost controller that will have the ability to knock the AMS-1000 off its throne is the soon to be released AMS-2000. The vast majority of all record holders of turbo bikes employ the AMS-1000 and so have we at RPM since the AMS-1000 was released. This boost controller has the ability to control boost per gear and ramp the boost in slowly, so not to annihilate the back tire with massive amounts of horsepower. When I quote the horsepower that the turbo kits we sell produce, the first reaction from almost everyone is that is more horsepower than you could possibly ever use. That statement would be true, if not for the NLR AMS-1000 and yes we sell them.
A. Journal Bearing Turbo: Journal bearing turbos are the most common type of turbo found in most Stage I and Stage II Turbo Kits. The main shaft of the turbo uses oil pressure from the motor forced into a journal to lubricate the internal operation of the turbo. These are generally less expensive than their ball bearing counterparts and have more of what is called turbo lag; although with most modern Journal bearing turbos, from a good manufacturer, the turbo lag is kept to a minimum.
B. Ball Bearing Turbo: these are the step up from the journal bearing turbos and use ball bearings to support the main shaft inside the turbo. These have better spool times then their journal bank counterparts, thus reducing turbo lag. These also come in an upgraded form with the use of ceramic ball bearings, as opposed to steel ball bearings; these reduce friction and turbo lag even more than their steel ball bearing counterparts.
Manufacturer: this is a critical factor that most
people fail to consider. There are many companies out there building turbo kits
with substandard turbos, which you can see sold on eBay for under $100. There's
many opinions about which Turbo manufacturer is the best, thus we will not
touch on that subject, but I will give you a list of quality turbo
manufacturers: Garrett, Borg-Warner, Tial, Comp-Turbo, Magnum Turbo,
Turbonetics And Force Turbos.
VI. Upgrade Options.
when choosing a Turbo kit is important to consider what you plan on or maybe
planning in the future. This is when the options available from the turbo kit
manufacturer come into play. Maybe you'll just keep the Stage I Kit and never
want anything more, but I warn you boost is addictive and I haven't met a
single person who doesn't want more at a later point. Options to consider are
in external wastegate, full exhaust, secondary injection, standalone ECU and
datalogging. Before you purchase your first turbo kit always consider what you
may be doing in the future, a little money spent now, can save you a lot of
A. Now that you understand the fundamentals of choosing a Turbo kit for your Suzuki Hayabusa, you'll be better equipped to make the decision of which Turbo kit will best to your needs. If you are considering buying a used Turbo kit, what you have learned here today will certainly be helpful in choosing which Turbo kit to buy. We must warn you buying a Turbo kit from someone you don't know is a risky proposition at its best and downright foolish at its worst. I have seen on message boards such as SuzukiHayabusa.org where many used Turbo kits are sold with great success, but that's because many of the members are well-known as well as the kits that are on their bikes. I must warn you stay clear of eBay when buying a used Turbo kit, I've never seen a single customer satisfied with their purchase from an unknown source. Also never trust a tuning map from someone you do not know personally or well-known by someone you know and trust. I can't tell you how many motorist I've had to rebuild because the customer purchased a Turbo kit used online and the maps provided them by the seller was completely wrong for their combination and usually results in a blown motor. Like I said before a little money spent now can save you a lot of money in the future.
If you have any other questions please don't hesitate to call us at 508-801-3601 or visit our website at: http://www.ruthlessperformancemotorsports.com/